If information on the distribution of votes is not available, or if the distribution does not portray the reality accurately, the distribution of parliamentary seats is used instead. In Studies in Comparative International Development, December 2016.
The temporal jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for Rwanda shall extend to a period beginning on 1 January 1994 and ending on 31 December 1994. The International Tribunal for Rwanda and national courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction to prosecute persons for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda and Rwandan citizens for such violations committed in the territory of neighbouring States, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994. The International Tribunal for Rwanda shall have primacy over the national courts of all States.Until 1962 Rwanda had been a part of the United Nations Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi under the trusteeship of Belgium. Career FSO After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.In June 1962 the UN General Assembly terminated the Belgian trusteeship and granted full independence to Rwanda and Burundi. Embassy in the capital Kigali was established on July 1, 1962, with David J. Political appointee A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).The variables in question are political competition, political participation and the index of democratization. doi:10.1007/s11127-010-9754-y Hayo, Bernd & Voigt, Stefan (2010). Endogenous constitutions: Politics and politicians matter, economic outcomes don't. Statistical Approaches to developing Indicators of Armed Violence. Vliv nerostneho bohatstvi na uroven demokracie v Latinske Americe. The competition variable portrays the electoral success of smaller parties, that is, the percentage of votes gained by the smaller parties in parliamentary and/or presidential elections. Determinants of constitutional change: Why do countries change their form of government? Geneva: Technical paper prepared by Stat Aid for Small Arms Survey.